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Although Chicano had negative connotations as a term of denigration prior Wicked Funk - Various - Los Cuarenta - Cabriolet the Chicano Movementit was reclaimed in the s and s by Mexican Americans to express self-determination and solidarity in a shared cultural, ethnic, and communal identity while openly rejecting assimilation.
The King and Kenedy firm submitted a voucher to the Joint Claims Commission of the United States in to cover the costs of this gunboat's conversion from a passenger steamer. Linguists Edward R. Simmen and Richard F.
The etymology of the term Chicano is not definitive and has been debated by historians, scholars, and activists. Although there has been controversy over the origins of Chicanocommunity conscience reportedly remains strong among those who claim the identity. Chicano is believed by some scholars to be a Spanish language derivative of an older Nahuatl word Mexitli "Meh-shee-tlee".
Mexitli is the linguistic progenitor or root of the word "Mexica," referring to the Mexica people, and its singular form "Mexicatl" "Me-hee-cah-no".
According to The Omen - The New Ambassador - Jerry Goldsmith - Jerry Goldsmith At 20th Century Fox, "given that the velar x is a palatal phoneme S with the spelling sh ," in accordance with the Indigenous phonological system of the Mexicas Chicano Blues - Impulse (26) - Chicano Violence (File)it would become "Meshicano" or "Mechicano.
In Mexico's Indigenous regions, mestizos  and Westernized natives are referred to as mexicanosreferring to the modern nation, rather than the pueblo village or tribal identification of the speaker, be it Mayan, Zapotec, Mixtec, Huasteco, or any of hundreds of other indigenous groups. Thus, a newly emigrated Nahuatl speaker in an urban center might referred to his cultural relatives in this country, different from himself, as mexicanosshortened to Chicanos. The Indians later I Am.
- Amor Fati - Body W/O Organs (Amor Fati IV) to themselves as Meshicanos and even as Shicanos, thus giving birth to the term Chicano. Chicano identity was originally reclaimed in the s and s by Mexican Americans as a means of asserting their own ethnic, political, and cultural identity while rejecting and resisting assimilation into whiteness, systematic racism and stereotypes, La Vie Parisienne - Various - A Treasury Of III Golden Classics, and the American nation-state.
Chicano identity was also founded on the need to create alliances with other oppressed ethnic and third world peoples while protesting U. Chicano identity was organized around seven objectives: unity, economy, education, institutions, self-defense, culture, and political liberation, in an effort to bridge regional and class divisions among Mexican Americans. Chicanos originally espoused the belief in a unifying mestizo identity and also centered their platform in the masculine body.
In the s, Chicano identity became further defined under a reverence for machismo while also maintaining the values of their original platform, exemplified via the language employed in court cases such as Montez v. Superior Court,which defined the Chicano community as unified under "a commonality of ideals and costumbres with respect to masculinity machismofamily roles, child discipline, [and] religious values. Academic Angie Chabram-Dernersesian indicates in her study of literary texts which were formative in the Chicano movement that most of the stories focus on men and boys and none focus on Chicanas.
Xicanisma was coined by Chicana Feminist writer Ana Castillo in Massacre of the Dreamers: Essays on Xicanisma as a recognition of the shift in consciousness since the Chicano Movement. Juan Velasco states that "implicit in the 'X' of more recent configurations of 'Xicano' Chicano Blues - Impulse (26) - Chicano Violence (File) 'Xicanisma' is a criticism not only of the term 'Hispanic' but of the racial poetics of the 'multiracial' within Mexican and American culture.
Scholar Francesca A. Chicanos, like many Mexicans, are Mestizos who have heritage of both indigenous American cultures and Europeanmainly Spanish, through colonization and immigration. Hispanic literally refers to Spain, but, in effect, to those of Spanish-speaking descent; therefore, the two terms are misnomers inasmuch as they apply only by extension to Chicanos, who may identify primarily as Amerindian or simply Mexican, Chicano Blues - Impulse (26) - Chicano Violence (File) who may speak Amerindian Chicano Blues - Impulse (26) - Chicano Violence (File) and English as well as Spanish.
Since then it has widely been used by politicians and the media. For this reason, many Chicanos reject the term Hispanic. While some Mexican-Americans may embrace the term Chicanoothers prefer to identify themselves as:. Chicano existed as a disparaging term, yet transformed from a Chicano Blues - Impulse (26) - Chicano Violence (File) label of derision to one of ethnic pride Chicano Blues - Impulse (26) - Chicano Violence (File) general usage within Mexican-American communities with the rise of the Chicano Movement.
Prior to the s, it was used as a racial slur by non-Mexican Americans to refer to Mexican American people in Spanish-speaking neighborhoods. In Mexico, which by American standards would be considered class discrimination or racist, chicano is associated with a Mexican-American person of low importance class and poor morals similarly to the Spanish terms CholoChulo and Majo.
Usage was also generational, with the more assimilated third-generation members again, more likely male likely to adopt the usage. This group was also younger, of more radical persuasion, and less connected to a Mexican cultural heritage. Outside of Mexican-American communities, the term might assume a negative meaning if it is used in a Chicano Blues - Impulse (26) - Chicano Violence (File) that embodies the prejudices and bigotries long directed at Mexican and Mexican-American people in the United States.
For example, in one case, Ana Castillo has indicated the following subjective meaning through her creative work: "[a] marginalized, brown woman Talking Clouds (Rebuilt By Sage Taylor) - Various - Uncharted Places is treated as a foreigner and is expected to do menial labor and ask nothing of the society in which she lives.
The term's meanings are flexible. Reclaiming its usage as a term of derision, self-described Chicanos view the identity as a positive self-identifying social construction meant to assert certain notions of ethnic, cultural, political, and Indigenous consciousness.
Chicano identity usually consists of incorporating some notion of hybridity. For Chicanos, the identity has been defined as being "neither from here, nor from there" in reference to the US and Mexico. The identity may hold different meanings for different Chicanos. What it means to me may be different than what it means to you. However, as substantiated by Chicano activists, artists, writers, and scholars since the inception of the Chicano Movement, many Chicanos gravitate around the following conceptualizations of ethnic, political, cultural, and Indigenous identity:.
From a popular perspective, the term Chicano became A Girl Named Sooner - Making A Difference - Jerry Goldsmith - Jerry Goldsmith At 20th Century Fox visible outside of Chicano communities during the American civil rights movement.
It was commonly used during the mids by Mexican-American activists such as Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzaleswho was one of the first to reclaim the term, in an attempt to assert their civil rights and rid the word of its polarizing negative connotations.
Chicano soon became an identity for Mexican Americans to assert their ethnic pride, proudly identifying themselves as Chicanos and also asserting a notion of Brown Pridedrawing on the " Black is Beautiful Chicano Blues - Impulse (26) - Chicano Violence (File) movement, inverting phrases of insult into forms of ethnic empowerment.
Following this reclamation, Chicano identity soon became a celebration of non-whiteness, both within and external to the Mexican-American community. Chicano ethnic identity worked against the state-sanctioned census categories of "Whites with Spanish Surnames," originally promulgated on the U. Chicano writers have described how Chicano ethnic identity is born out of colonial encounters between Europe and the Americas.
Alfred Arteaga writes how the Chicano arose as a result of the violence of colonialism, emerging as a hybrid ethnicity or race from European colonizers and Amerindian Indigenous peoples. Arteaga acknowledges how this ethnic and racial hybridity among Chicanos is highly complex and extends beyond a previously generalized "Aztec" ancestry, as originally asserted during the formative years of the Chicano Movement, sometimes involves more than Spanish ancestry, and also may include African ancestry, largely as a result of Spanish slavery or runaway slaves from Anglo-Americans.
Arteaga therefore concludes that "the physical manifestation of the Chicano, is itself a product of hybridity. Pachucos were negatively perceived by white European American society. By the s, Chicano identity was consolidating around several key political positions: rejecting assimilation into white American society, resisting systematic racism, colonialism, and the American nation-state, and affirming the need to create alliances with other oppressed ethnic and third world peoples.
Political liberation was a founding principle of Chicano Chicano Blues - Impulse (26) - Chicano Violence (File). Chicano nationalism called for the creation of a Chicano subject whose political identity was separate from the U. As stated by scholar Alberto Varon, Chicano nationalism "created enduring social improvement for the lives of Mexican Americans and others" through the political action of Chicanos.
At the same time, this brand of Chicano nationalism focused on the masculinist subject in its calls for political resistance, which has since been insightfully and powerfully critiqued by Chicana feminists. Paralleling with groups such as the Black Ice Cream - Rickey Smiley - Off The Hook Volume IV and Young Lordswhich were founded in and respectively, membership in the Brown Berets was estimated to have reached five thousand in over eighty chapters mostly centered in California and Texas.
The Brown Berets were critical in organizing the Chicano Blowouts of and the National Chicano Moratoriumwhich protested the high number of Chicano casualties in the Vietnam War. At certain points in the s, Chicano was the preferred term for reference to Mexican Americans, particularly in scholarly literature. Because of this, Chicano has tended to refer to participants in Mexican-American activism.
Reies Wore Out Your Welcome - Allure - Sunny Days who died on January 19, was a vocal claimant to the rights of Latin Americans and Mexican Americans, and he remains a major figure of the early Chicano Movement. Of the term, he wrote: "The Anglo press degradized the word 'Chicano'. They use it to divide us. We use it to unify ourselves with our people and with Latin America.
Since the Chicano Movement, Chicano has been reclaimed by Mexican-Americans to denote a hybrid cultural identity that is neither American or Mexican. Chicano cultural identity is commonly defined as embodying the "in-between" nature of hybridity. At least as early as the s, the precursors to Chicano cultural identity largely developed in Los Angeles and the Southwest.
In the early 20th century, former zootsuiter Salvador "El Chava" reflects how "racism and poverty created [Mexican-American] gangs; we had to protect ourselves. Barrios and Chicano Blues - Impulse (26) - Chicano Violence (File) rural barrios were founded throughout Southern California and elsewhere in neglected districts of cities and outlying areas which exacerbated social and cultural issues within Mexican-American communities.
Chicano zoot suiters on the West Coast were influenced by Black American zoot suiters and the jazz and swing music scene on the East Coast. Many aspects forming Chicano cultural identity, such as lowrider culture, have been stigmatized and policed by white European Americans who perceived all Chicanos as "juvenile delinquents or gang members" for their embrace of nonwhite style and cultures, many of which were influenced by and adjacent to Black American urban culture.
These negative perceptions were amplified by media outlets such as the Los Angeles Times. Luis Alvarez remarks how this affected the policing of Black and Brown male bodies in particular: "Popular discourse characterizing nonwhite youth as animal-like, hypersexual, and criminal marked Chicano Blues - Impulse (26) - Chicano Violence (File) bodies as 'other' and, when coming from city officials and the press, served to help construct for the public a social meaning of African Americans and Mexican American youth.
In these ways, the physical and discursive bodies of nonwhite youth were the sites upon which their dignity was denied. With mass media, Chicano culture became popular in both the United States and internationally.
In Japan, the highlights of Chicano culture include the music, lowrider community, and the arts. The Chicano fashion trends have also made its way to japan, with it inspiring many of the younger generations of japan. The identity has been perceived as a means of reclaiming Indigenous ancestry and forming an identity distinct from a European identity, despite partial European descent. And what is it the Chicanos want?
Scholar Patrisia Gonzales analyzes how Chicanx people are descendants of the Indigenous peoples of Mexico and have been displaced because of colonial violence which positions them among " detribalized Indigenous peoples and communities.
Gloria E. So in a sense Chicanos and Mexicans are 'detribalized'. We don't have tribal affiliations but neither Chicano Blues - Impulse (26) - Chicano Violence (File) we have to carry ID cards establishing tribal affiliation.
Jorge Klor de Alva as a useful political maneuver for mobilizing support for the Chicano Movement and rejecting assimilation, the appropriation of a pre-contact Aztec culture has since been reexamined by some Chicanos who recognize a need to affirm the diversity of the Indigenous peoples of Mexico and of Indigenous ancestry among Chicanos. Chicana women frequently confront objectification, being perceived as "exotic," Chicano Blues - Impulse (26) - Chicano Violence (File) and "hot" at a very young age while also facing denigration as "barefoot," "pregnant," "dark," and "low-class.
Although many Chicana youth desire open conversation regarding gendered and sexual expectations, as well as mental health, these issues are often not discussed openly in families, which perpetuates unsafe and destructive practices. While young Chicana women are objectified, middle-aged Chicanas often discuss feelings of being invisible.
Chicana women at this age report feeling trapped in balancing family obligations to their parents and children while attempting to create a space for their own sexual desires. The cultural expectation that Chicana women should be "protected" by Chicano men also constricts the agency and mobility of Chicana women.
Early in their social development, Chicano men develop their gendered identity as men within the context of marginalization. Some authors argue that "Mexican men and their Chicano brothers suffer from an inferiority complex due to the conquest and genocide inflicted upon their indigenous ancestors," which leaves many Chicano men feeling trapped between identifying with the "superior" European conqueror and the "inferior" indigenous ancestor. As a result, the psychological pain this conflict along with marginalization creates is reported to manifest itself in the form of hypermasculinityin which there occurs a "quest for power and control over others in order to feel better" about oneself.
This can result in abusive behavior, developing an impenetrable cold persona, alcohol abuseand other destructive behaviors. Chicano men tend to learn about sex from their peers as well as older male family members who perpetuate the idea that as men they have "a right to engage in sexual activity without commitment.
Estrada describes how "the overarching structures of capitalist white hetero sexism," including higher levels of criminalization directed towards Chicanos, have proliferated "further homophobia" especially among Chicano boys and men who may adopt "hypermasculine personas that can include sexual violence directed at others.
Chicanos, regardless of their generational status, may seek both Western biomedical healthcare and Indigenous health practices when dealing with trauma or illness. The effects of colonization and conquest have been proven to produce psychological distress among Indigenous communities. Similarly, intergenerational trauma along with racism and institutionalized systems of oppression which emerged from colonization have been shown to adversely impact the mental health of Chicanos and Latinos.
Mexican Americans are three times more likely than European Americans to live in poverty.
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