Label: Pedestrian Tapes - PX1 • Format: Cassette Album • Country: Australia • Genre: Electronic • Style: Experimental, Industrial
The army of the Kingdom of Macedon was among the greatest military forces of the ancient world. It was created and made formidable by King Philip II of Macedon Tell Me Sometimes - FRIGIDAIRE TANGO - The Cock previously the army of Macedon had been of little account in the politics of the Greek world, and Macedonia had been regarded as a second-rate power.
The latest innovations in weapons and tactics were adopted and refined by Philip II, and he created a uniquely flexible and effective army.
By introducing military service as a full-time occupation, Philip was able to drill his men regularly, ensuring unity and cohesion in his ranks. In a remarkably short time, this led to Silence - Ian Hartley - Sea V.S. Land creation of one of the finest military machines of the ancient world.
Tactical improvements included the latest developments in the deployment of the traditional Greek phalanx made by men such as Epaminondas of Thebes and Iphicrates of Athens. Philip Silence - Ian Hartley - Sea V.S. Land improved on these military innovators by using both Epaminondas' deeper phalanx and Iphicrates' combination of a longer spear and smaller and lighter shield. However, the Macedonian king also innovated; he introduced the use of a much longer spear, the two-handed pike.
The Macedonian pike, the sarissagave its wielder many advantages both offensively and defensively. For the first time in Greek warfare, cavalry became a decisive arm in battle. The Macedonian army perfected the co-ordination of different troop types, an early example of combined arms tactics — the heavy infantry phalanx, skirmish infantry, archers, light cavalry and heavy cavalryand siege engines were all deployed in battle; each troop type being used to its own particular advantage and creating a synergy of mutual support.
The new Macedonian army was an amalgamation of different forces. Macedonians and other Greeks especially Thessalian cavalry and a wide range of mercenaries from across Silence - Ian Hartley - Sea V.S. Land Aegean and Balkans were employed by Phillip. By BC, more than a half of the army for his planned invasion of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia came from outside the borders of Macedon — from all over the Greek world and the nearby barbarian tribes, such as the IllyriansPaeoniansand Thracians.
Unfortunately, Silence - Ian Hartley - Sea V.S. Land of the primary historical sources for this period have been lost. As a consequence, scholarship is largely reliant on the works of Diodorus Siculus Silence - Ian Hartley - Sea V.S. Land Arrianplus the incomplete writings of Curtiusall of whom lived centuries later than the events they Silence - Ian Hartley - Sea V.S. Land . If Philip II of Macedon had not been the father of Alexander the Greathe would be more widely known as a first-rate military innovator, tactician and strategist, and as a consummate politician.
The conquests of Alexander would have been impossible without the army his father created. Considered semi-barbarous by some metropolitan Greeks, the Macedonians were a martial people; they drank deeply of unwatered wine the very mark of a barbarian and no youth was considered to be fit to sit with the men at table until he had killed, on foot with a spear, a wild boar.
When Philip took over control of Macedonit was a backward state on the fringes of the Greek world and was beset by its traditional enemies: IllyriansPaeonians and Thracians. The basic structure of the army inherited by Philip II was the division of the companion cavalry hetairoi from the foot companions pezhetairoiaugmented by various allied troops, foreign levied soldiers, and mercenaries.
Nicholas Sekunda states that at the beginning of Philip II's reign in BC, the Macedonian army consisted of 10, infantry and cavalry, the latter figure similar to that recorded for the 5th century BC. Philip's first achievement was to unify Macedon through his army.
He raised troops and made his army the single fount of wealth, honour and power in the land; the unruly chieftains of Macedonia became the officers and elite cavalrymen of the army, the highland peasants became the footsoldiers. Philip took pains to keep them always under arms and either fighting or drilling. Manoeuvres and drills were made into competitive events, and the truculent Macedonians vied with each other to excel.
As a political counterbalance to the native-born Macedonian nobility, Philip invited military families from throughout Greece to settle on lands he had conquered or confiscated from his enemies, these 'personal clients' then also served as army officers or in the Companion cavalry. After taking control of the gold-rich mines of Mount Pangaeus, and the city of Amphipolis that dominated the region, he obtained the wealth to support a Silence - Ian Hartley - Sea V.S.
Land army. It was a professional army imbued with a national spirit, an unusual combination for the Greek world of the time. The armies of contemporary Greek states were largely reliant on a combination of citizens and mercenaries. The former were not full-time soldiers, and the latter, though professional, had little or no inherent loyalty to their employers. By the time of his death, Philip's army had pushed the Macedonian frontier into southern Illyria, conquered the Paeonians and Thracians, asserted a hegemony over Thessalydestroyed the power of Phocis and defeated and humbled Athens and Thebes.
All the states of Greece, with the exception of Sparta, Epirus and Crete, had become subservient allies of Macedon League of Corinth and Philip was laying the foundations of an invasion of the Persian Empire, an invasion that his son would successfully undertake. One important military innovation of Philip II is often overlooked, he banned the use of wheeled transport and limited the number of camp servants to one to every ten infantrymen and one each for the cavalry.
This reform made the baggage train of the army very small for its size and improved its speed of march. Along with Thessalian cavalry contingents, the Companions — raised from landed Samba Da Volta - Toquinho E Orquestra Sinfônica* - Mulher, Amor E Romantismo — made up the bulk of the Macedonian heavy cavalry.
Central Macedonia was good horse-rearing country and cavalry was prominent in Macedonian armies from early times. However, it was the reforms in organisation, drill and tactics introduced by Philip II that transformed the Companion cavalry into a battle-winning force, especially the introduction of, or increased emphasis on, the use of a lance and shock tactics.
Coinage indicates that from an early period the primary weapons used by Macedonian cavalry were a pair of javelins.
This remained true through to the reign of Archelaus I Subsequently, despite the adoption of the lance, it is highly probable that the Companion cavalry continued to employ javelins when on scouting or skirmishing missions. The Royal Squadron was also known as the Agema - "that which leads". Arrian, for instance, described squadrons from Bottiaea, Amphipolis, Apollonia and Anthemus. In conjunction with this, each squadron was divided into two lochoi.
This was probably undertaken to allow for the increase in size of each squadron, as reinforcements and amalgamations meant that the Companion cavalry grew in size.
At this time, Alexander abandoned the regional organisation of the ilai, choosing their officers regardless of their origins.
The individual Companion cavalry squadrons were usually deployed in a wedge formation, which facilitated both manoeuvrability and the shock of the charge. Ape Has Killed Ape - Tom Scott / Leonard Rosenman - Conquest Of The Planet Of The Apes / Battle For advantage of the wedge was that Silence - Ian Hartley - Sea V.S.
Land offered a narrow point for piercing enemy formations and concentrated the leaders at the front. It was easier to turn than a square formation because everyone followed the leader at the apex, "like a flight of cranes".
Philip II introduced the formation, probably in emulation of Thracian and Scythian cavalry, though the example of the rhomboid formation adopted by Macedon's southern neighbours, the Thessalians, must also have had some effect. The primary weapon of the Macedonian cavalry was the xystona double ended cornel-wood lance, with a sword as a secondary weapon. From descriptions of combat, it would appear that once in melee the Companion cavalryman used his lance to thrust at the chests and faces of the enemy.
It is possible that the lance was aimed at the upper body of an opposing cavalryman in the expectation that a blow which did not wound or kill might have sufficient leverage to unseat. If the lance broke, the Companion could reverse it and use the other end, or draw his sword. Cleitusan officer of the Companions, saved Alexander the Great's life at the Granicus by cutting off an enemy horseman's arm with his sword. Although the Companion cavalry is largely regarded as the first real shock cavalry of Antiquity, it seems that Alexander was very wary of using it against well-formed infantry, as attested by Arrian in his account of the battle against the Malli, an Indian tribe he faced after Hydaspes.
There, Alexander did not dare assault the dense infantry formation with his cavalry, but rather waited for his infantry to arrive, while he and his cavalry harassed their flanks. Alexander usually launched the Companions at the enemy after a gap had opened up between their units or disorder had already disrupted their ranks.
However, the ancient historian Arrian implies that the Companion cavalry were successful in an assault, along with heavy infantry, on the Greek mercenary hoplites serving Persia in the closing stages of the Battle of Granicus. Their success may have been largely due to the poor morale of the hoplites, who had just witnessed the rest of their army broken and put to flight. The original 1, Companions who accompanied Alexander to Asia were augmented by reinforcements arriving from Macedon after Silence - Ian Hartley - Sea V.S.
Land first year of campaigning. Following the defeat of Lycophron of Pherae and Onomarchos of PhocisPhilip II of Macedon was appointed Archon of the Thessalian League ; his death induced the Thessalians to attempt to throw off Macedonian hegemony, but a short bloodless campaign by Alexander restored them to allegiance.
The Thessalians were considered the finest cavalry of Greece. The Thessalian heavy cavalry accompanied Alexander during the first half of his Asian campaign and continued to be employed by the Macedonians as allies until Macedon 's final demise at the hands of the Romans.
Its organization and weaponry were similar to the Companion Cavalry, though the earlier Thessalian way of fighting emphasised the use Silence - Ian Hartley - Sea V.S. Land javelins. This formation was very efficient for manoeuvring, as it allowed the squadron to change direction at Cougars - Cougars EP while still retaining cohesion.
This number would have risen no higher than 2, They were typically entrusted with the defensive role of guarding the left flank from enemy cavalry, allowing the decisive attack to be launched on the right.
They often faced Total Doins (Original Mix) - Aquilaganja - Total Doins opposition when in this role. At Issus and Gaugamelathe Thessalians withstood the attack of Persian cavalry forces, though greatly outnumbered.
At Ecbatana, the Thessalians with Alexander's army were disbanded and sent home. Some remained with the army as Plasma Jam (Live Milan) - Plasmatics - Beyond The Valley Of 1984, yet these too were sent home a year later when the army reached the Oxus River.
The Hellenic states allied to, or more accurately under the hegemony of, Macedon provided contingents of heavy cavalry and the Macedonian kings hired mercenaries of the same origins. Alexander had Greek cavalrymen at the start of his campaign against Persia, probably organised into 5 ilai.
These cavalrymen would have been equipped very similarly to the Thessalians and Companions, but they deployed in a square formation eight deep and sixteen abreast. Light cavalry, such as the prodromoi literal trans. There is some ambiguity concerning the use of the term prodromoi by the sources; it may have been used to describe any cavalry undertaking a scouting, skirmishing or screening mission, or it may have denoted a single unit, or indeed both.
By the time Alexander campaigned in India, and subsequently, the cavalry had been drastically reformed and Silence - Ian Hartley - Sea V.S.
Land thousands of horse-archers from Iranian peoples such as the Dahae prominent at the Battle of Hydaspes. Scholarship is divided as to the ethnic composition of the prodromoi of the Macedonian army. Most authorities Silence - Ian Hartley - Sea V.S. Land the prodromoi as being raised from Macedonians, which would parallel the Athenian prodromoiwho were raised from the Thetes, the lowest census class of Athenian citizens. In the primary sources, Arrian mentions that Aretes commanded the prodromoi ; in the same context Curtius says that Aretes commanded the sarissophoroi.
It would appear that the same unit of cavalry was known by both names. In battle, they were used in a shock role to protect the right flank of the Companion cavalry.
Persian light cavalry took over these duties when they became available to the Macedonian army following Gaugamela. The prodromoi then assumed a purely battlefield role as shock cavalry. It is possible that the prodromoidue to their skill in wielding long lances and their extensive battle experience, were considered more valuable in the role of shock cavalry, especially after the departure of the Thessalian cavalry.
Four ilaieach strong, of prodromoi operated with Alexander's army in Asia. At Gaugamela, the prodromoi under Aretes were responsible for finally routing the Persian left wing cavalry, winning the battle in this sector. These light cavalry were recruited from Paeoniaa tribal region to the north of Macedonia. The Paeones had been conquered and reduced to tributary status by Philip II. Led by their own chieftains, the Paeonian cavalry was usually brigaded with the Prodromoi and often operated alongside them in battle.
They appear to have been armed with javelins and swords and are, unusually, described as carrying shields. Initially, only one squadron strong, they received reinforcements in Egypt and a further at Susa. Largely recruited from The Blech - Ich Wollte Meine Schuhe Zerschneiden Odrysian tribe, the Thracian cavalry also acted as scouts on the march.
In battle, they performed much the same function as the Prodromoi and Paeonians, except they guarded the flank of the Thessalian cavalry on the left wing of the army. The Thracians deployed in their ancestral wedge formations and were armed with javelins and swords. At Gaugamela, the Thracians fielded four ilai and were about strong. In BC, Alexander, while in Sogdianacreated a 1, strong unit of horse archers that was recruited from various Iranian peoples.
They were very effective at scouting and in screening the rest of the army from the enemy.